Wednesday, July 18, 2007

Aurangzeb -- As he was according to Mughal Records -- Part XII-- Qanungoship on becoming Musalman

Rs. 4 to a Hindu male and Rs. 2 to a Hindu female on conversion Siyah Akhbarat-i-Darbar-i-Mualla Julus (R. Yr.) 28 Jamadi T. 12 / 7th April 1685

The emperor ordered Jumadat-ul-Mulk to write to all the faujdars and Diwans of the kingdom that each Hindu male who becomes a Musalman is to be given Rs 4 and each Hindu woman Rs. 2 as fixed by us from the treasury of the place by way of inam.

Those who become Musalman out of devotion for Din (Islam) in their case the award of money in future is to be stopped.

Note: The amount offered as an inducement for conversion was substantial and amounted to almost one month's wages of a worker in case of a Hindu male.

The document forms one of the most unabashed statement and the severest indictment on the methods adopted in spreading Islam in India, and this was being done even more than 400 years after the establishment of Muslim rule in India (1200 A.D.).

Qanungoship on becoming Musalman
Of the two Akhbarat, the first dated Zilqada 3. R. Yr. 24 (15th November 1680) says that Murlidhar, Qanungo. Alipur became a Musalman and received a khil'at by way of inam and the second dated 27th Jamadi T (5th June 1681) describes the conversion of Devidas Khatri, Qanungo of Kalanur.

Qanungoship on becoming Musalman
Of the three Akhbarat (46-i-ii-iii) of April 21, April 22 and May 4 1667, the first mentions that four Qanungos of parganah Bhure became Musalman and were awarded dresses of honour, the second says that the office of Qanungo was restored to four persons Makrand etc.) on becoming Musalmans, the third records that Parmanand, Qanungo of Meerut became a Musalman 'as promised by him'.

There are a large number of Akhbarat (Aurangzeb's court bulletins) which mention that either Qanungoi was restored on becoming Musalman, or that a person or persons were appointed Qanungos on accepting Islam or that they agreed to become Musalman obviously under pressure or as inducement.

A typical entry in the Akhbarat, such as of R. Yr. 10. Zilqada / April 22 1667 reads Makrand etc. in all four persons became Musalman. The Qanungoi of Parganah Khohri was restored to them four Khilats were conferred upon them. Sir Jadunath Sarkar is right in saying that Qanungoship on becoming a Muslim had become a proverb.

As Qanungo had intimate knowledge of the customs and tenures of the land, he could serve as the best agent for protecting the interests of the Musalmans and in extending influence of Islam in the rural areas. The following sketch shows four Qanungos being restored their Qanungoi on becoming Musalman

No comments: